Actually, there is only one race—the human race. Obviously, several different colors of people having distinctive characteristics exist on the earth, but they are the same race. The Bible says in Acts 17 that all nations are of one blood. Because Scripture does not state where these differences came from, many have come up with a number of theories.
Medium-Brown Skin Color Theory
One theory says that Adam and Eve were medium brown, possibly because they were made from the earth. That medium-brown couple produced all the varieties of colors; they might have had 100 children or more with all the colors represented in the first family.
Mark of Cain Theory
A second theory says that the first division of colors came when God put a mark upon Cain (Genesis 4:15) after Cain killed Abel. The Bible doesn’t say what the mark is, but some have tried to say that Cain became the first black man. Of course, that theory only explains two colors and does not consider the Flood bringing the human race back to one family.
Curse of Canaan Theory
A third theory says that Noah cursed Canaan after Noah got drunk (Genesis 9:25). Some people think Canaan became the first black man. Though, it should not be said that any color of people is cursed. This theory would only explain two colors. The Bible says Canaan shall be a servant of servants. Some have used this verse with their twisted logic to justify slavery.
The Tower of Babel Theory
The fourth (and most likely) theory says the races came from the Tower of Babel. Genesis 10:20 says, “These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations.” Perhaps all families, countries, nations, and tongues were created or developed from this event. Maybe the colors were divinely created at that time, or maybe they are just a natural product of a small group of people speaking their own language and marrying back to their own parent stock. Racial traits become more pronounced in a small inbreeding group.